BioEYES Standards Alignment
— High School
Next Generation Science Standards*
The Next Generation Science Standards were developed by a consortium of 26 states and by the National Science Teachers Association, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the National Research Council, and Achieve with the intent of helping students understand the scientific process of developing and testing ideas while evaluating scientific evidence. The state of Maryland plans to fully implement the standards by the 2017-18 school year. [Source]
HS.Inheritance and Variation of Traits
Students who demonstrate an understanding can:
- HS-LS1-4. Use a model to illustrate the role of cellular division (mitosis) and differentiation in producing and maintaining complex organisms.
- HS-LS3-1. Ask questions to clarify relationships about the role of DNA and chromosomes in coding the instructions for characteristic traits passed from parents to offspring.
- HS-LS3-2. Make and defend a claim based on evidence that inheritable genetic variations may result from: (1) new genetic combinations through meiosis, (2) viable errors occurring during replication, and/or (3) mutations caused by environmental factors.
- HS-LS3-3. Apply concepts of statistics and probability to explain the variation and distribution of expressed traits in a population.
Science and Engineering Practices:
- Asking Questions and Defining Problems
- Asking questions and defining problems in 9-12 builds on K-8 experiences and progresses to formulating, refining, and evaluating empirically testable questions and design problems using models and simulations.
- Ask questions that arise from examining models or a theory to clarify relationships. (HS-LS3-1)
- Engaging in Argument from Evidence
- Engaging in argument from evidence in 9-12 builds on K-8 experiences and progresses to using appropriate and sufficient evidence and scientific reasoning to defend and critique claims and explanations about the natural and designed world(s). Arguments may also come from current scientific or historical episodes in science.
- Make and defend a claim based on evidence about the natural world that reflects scientific knowledge, and student-generated evidence. (HS-LS3-2)
Disciplinary Core Ideas:
- LS1.A: Structure and Function
- All cells contain genetic information in the form of DNA molecules. Genes are regions in the DNA that contain the instructions that code for the formation of proteins. (secondary to HS-LS3-1)(Note: This Disciplinary Core Idea is also addressed by HS-LS1-1)
- LS3.A: Inheritance of Traits
- Each chromosome consists of a single very long DNA molecule, and each gene on the chromosome is a particular segment of that DNA. The instructions for forming species’ characteristics are carried in DNA. All cells in an organism have the same genetic content, but the genes used (expressed) by the cell may be regulated in different ways. Not all DNA codes for a protein; some segments of DNA are involved in regulatory or structural functions, and some have no as-yet known function. (HS-LS3-1)
- LS3.B: Variation of Traits
- In sexual reproduction, chromosomes can sometimes swap sections during the process of meiosis (cell division), thereby creating new genetic combinations and thus more genetic variation. Although DNA replication is tightly regulated and remarkably accurate, errors do occur and result in mutations, which are also a source of genetic variation. Environmental factors can also cause mutations in genes, and viable mutations are inherited. (HS-LS3-2)
- Environmental factors also affect expression of traits, and hence affect the probability of occurrences of traits in a population. Thus the variation and distribution of traits observed depends on both genetic and environmental factors. (HS-LS3-2),(HS-LS3-3)
- Cause and Effect
- Empirical evidence is required to differentiate between cause and correlation and make claims about specific causes and effects. (HS-LS3-1),(HS-LS3-2)
“Next Generation Science Standards” is a registered trademark of Achieve. Neither Achieve nor the lead states and partners that developed the Next Generation Science Standards was involved in the production of, and does not endorse, this product. [Return]